ESL Teacher Career Guide
English as a second language (ESL) teachers work with non-native speakers in a country that is primarily English-speaking to help them learn to speak, read, understand, and write in English. They may work in public or private schools, language academies, or teach private lessons out of their home or the homes of students. They may also work or volunteer for community- and university-based programs. The term ESL is just one way to refer to the field. Other related terms, which vary by region, state, district, and/or school, include:
- Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD): Used in the US to describe English language learners.
- English Language Learners (ELL): Refers to learners typically found in K-12 environments.
- English Language Teaching or Training (ELT): Mostly used in the UK; same meaning as ESL.
- (Teaching) English for Academic Purposes (TEAP or EAP): Teaching students how to write formally, give presentations, and perform academically in English.
- (Teaching) English as a Foreign Language (TEFL or EFL): Teaching English in a non-English-speaking country.
- Teaching English as a New Language (TENL or ENL): Used in some states instead of ESL.
- (Teaching) English as a Second Language (TESL or ESL): Teaching English in a country that is primarily English-speaking.
- (Teaching) English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL or ESOL): Acronym created in part to be more inclusive than ESL, which assumes English is the second language, when in fact, English may be the third or fourth language.
- (Teaching) English for Specific Purposes (TESP or ESP): Teaching English that is related to a certain industry such as technology or business.
ESL students can be found in all age ranges, from children to adults. This guide provides further information on what ESL teachers do, how to become one, and the industry’s salary and job outlook.
ESL Teacher Job Description
An ESL teacher is responsible for providing lessons and support to students who are learning English as a second language. Often ESL teachers use a real-life context to help students grasp the complexities of the language. ESL teachers must be adaptable, creative, and sensitive to the cultural differences expected when working with students from different cultures. Sometimes, those who teach English as a second language also act as mentors, advisors, and liaisons to students and families who are just getting established in a new environment.
In the public school system, ESL teachers may work with students of all grade levels (K-12), either pulling ESL student(s) out (pull-out approach) of the regular classroom to a designated area, where they work with them in small groups or one-on-one to improve their English skills, or joining them in the regular classroom (push-in approach), providing ESL instruction during regular class time. Depending on the size of the school, these small groups may comprise English language learners of different ages and grade levels who all need assistance with their English language skills. ESL teachers must learn and be able to use a variety of different instruction models, including but not limited to, sheltered instruction, communicative language teaching (CLT), total physical response (TPR), and direct instruction (DI).
ESL Degrees and Programs
ESL Teacher Requirements & Common Tasks
Teachers of ESL plan and deliver lessons and assess students on their progress, strengths, and weaknesses. They might teach an entire class or, more commonly in the public school system, teach students in small groups. ESL teachers organize activities and administer and grade tests. They may work with children or adult students of varied ages from diverse backgrounds. A flexible teaching style that adapts to varied student needs is a valuable skill for an ESL teacher. Excellent communication skills are also important.
Besides instructing students in the subject of English, ESL teachers must prepare lesson plans, complete related paperwork, and stay informed about changing teaching methods and standards. Because of the increasing use of technology in the classroom, ESL teachers need proficiency in computers and various classroom technologies. As with most teachers, teachers of English as a second language often spend nights and weekends grading papers, planning their lessons, conducting activities, and meeting with parents and other school faculty.
Teachers of adult learners specifically may be required to teach classes outside of regular working hours, since adult students often work during the day. Some adult students may have been highly educated in their native country, while others may have little formal education. ESL teachers working with adult students, especially in higher education settings such as community colleges or universities, will likely need to be familiar with instructional models such as English for Academic Purposes (EAP), English for Specific Purposes (ESP), and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP).
How to Become an ESL Teacher
All states require that public school ESL teachers have at least a bachelor’s degree, which may be in English as a second language or a related subject. Prospective ESL teachers must complete a state-approved teacher preparation program either as part of their bachelor’s program or as a stand-alone program following graduation. A master’s degree is not usually required to be an ESL teacher, but may be pursued by those who already have a bachelor’s degree in something else or for already licensed teachers looking to specialize in ESL. Education and training with a focus on teaching, linguistics, or second-language acquisition are preferred. In public school districts, ESL teachers are required to obtain state teacher certification, commonly with an ESL, ESOL, ENL, or ELL endorsement. If you have not yet received a bachelor’s degree and are not yet a certified teacher, the typical path to this career is as follows:
- Earn a bachelor’s degree in ESL or TESOL or a related subject, such as linguistics.
- Complete a student teaching internship in an ESL setting as part of your program.
- Take your state’s tests for teacher licensure with an endorsement in ESL.
- Apply for your teaching license.
- Begin applying to open positions for ESL teachers.
Those who have a bachelor’s degree in another subject but would like to teach K-12 ESL classes may be able to qualify for a license by completing an alternative route teacher preparation program. Especially for those who have no prior education in teaching English, this may include earning a master’s degree in ESL, preparing graduates to take the state exams, and earning teacher certification. Depending on state requirements, other alternative routes may be available based on completing a certificate and/or mentorship program plus a classroom-based internship. ESL degree programs typically include classes in subjects dealing with the history of the English language, the way that the language has changed and is still changing, and strategies on how to teach the language to people whose first language is not English. Other ESL degree coursework includes teaching reading and comprehension skills and successfully teaching students from diverse cultural backgrounds. ESL programs also instruct students on how to integrate teaching English with other subjects, such as science, mathematics, and history.
ESL Teacher Salary and Job Outlook
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that as of 2022, the median annual salary for elementary, middle, and high school teachers (not including special education teachers) was $61,690, $61,810, and $62,360 respectively.1-3 The BLS group including adult basic education, adult secondary education, and English as a second language (ESL) instructors earned a median annual salary of $58,590 in 2021.4 Wages are directly affected by job location, training, education, and experience, as well as available funding for ESL programs. Job openings for ESL teachers may be more abundant in states with larger non-native English populations, such as New York, Florida, California, and Texas. Employment projections are positive for elementary, middle, and high school teachers, at 4% to 5% through 2031, but the BLS group that includes ESL instructors is projected to decline by 6% through 2031.4-7
ESL Teacher Career Interviews
- Texas ESL Teacher Trainer and Founder, Kid World Citizen, Becky Morales
Helpful Skills and Experience
Prior experience working with ESL students can help prospective ESL teachers stand out. A master’s degree in ESL or a related field may also help and may demand a higher salary. Like all teachers, those who teach English as a second language should have good organizational skills, excellent communication and presentation skills, and sound decision-making skills. ESL teachers who will be working with children should have patience and be able to remain calm and fair. A love of children and a nurturing personality may also be helpful.
- American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL): Professional society of scholars from more than 50 countries promoting principled approaches to language education.
- Center for Applied Linguistics: Promotes language acquisition and cultural understanding through research and policy advocacy.
- EnglishUSA: Association of English language learning programs based in the US that provides a program finder and a job board.
- National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE): A non-profit organization advocating for bilingual and multilingual students.
- National Council for Teachers of English (NCTE): Organization supporting teachers and students through collaboration and community.
- TESOL International Association: A large membership-driven association providing information and resources for professionals involved in teaching the English language to non-native speakers.
Frequently Asked Questions
Question: What do I need to teach English abroad?
Answer: Requirements for teaching English abroad depend on the school that is hiring. Generally, K-12 English schools abroad look for someone with a college degree as well as K-12 certification in at least one US state. Adult English schools may be more flexible. Many employers prefer TEFL or TESOL certification such as the Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (CELTA) from Cambridge. Previous teaching experience and some knowledge of the language spoken in the country in which you hope to work can also be helpful. For more information on how to become a TEFL teacher, read our TEFL teacher career guide.
Question: Do you need an ESL endorsement to be hired as an ESL teacher?
Answer: The requirements for ESL teachers are set by the state department of education and in many cases an endorsement is required. The word for this endorsement varies by state and may be termed ESL, ESOL, ENL, ELL, or TESOL. Check with your state’s department of education for details.
Question: What is ESL?
Answer: ESL stands for English as a second language and it refers to the teaching and learning of English of students whose first language is not English. As described above, ESL typically refers to the teaching of English in a primarily English-speaking country, as opposed to EFL, which refers to the teaching of English in a non-English-speaking country.
Question: How are the skills of English language learners (ELLs) measured?
Answer: There are various test instruments used in the US to measure English language skills, including WIDA’s ACCESS for ELLs in K-12 schools, the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Test of English Proficiency (TEP), and the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) Basic English Skills Test (BEST) Plus. For evaluating the skills of English learners abroad, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) of the Council of Europe offers a framework to measure language proficiency, with Common Reference Levels ranging from A1 (basic) to C2 (proficient). A variety of standardized assessments can be used to validate these levels, including the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS), which are widely used for higher education and immigration, as well as the Aptis test, which is primarily used in businesses and organizations. See our TEFL Teacher Guide for more about international English language evaluation.
1. Bureau of Labor Statistics May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Elementary School Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252021.htm
2. Bureau of Labor Statistics May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Middle School Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252022.htm
3. Bureau of Labor Statistics May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, High School Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252031.htm
4. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, Adult Basic and Secondary Education and ESL Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/adult-literacy-and-ged-teachers.htm
5. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/kindergarten-and-elementary-school-teachers.htm
6. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, Middle School Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/middle-school-teachers.htm
7. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, High School Teachers: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/high-school-teachers.htm